Definition Once cardiac catheterization identifies blockage, interventional procedures can be performed. These procedures are an extent of the cardiac catheterization transitioning from probing to treatment.
Balloon Angioplasty: The technical name for balloon angioplasty is percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). As the name suggest this procedure adds a small balloon at the tip of the catheter and inserted at the narrowed or blocked portion of the coronary artery. Once the balloon is in place it is inflated which compresses the plaque or any type of blockage material is pushed against the arterial wall. The overall width of the artery is widened and the blood flow is improved.
Balloon angioplasty with stenting
In most cases, balloon angioplasty is performed in combination with the stenting procedure. A stent is a small, metal mesh tube that provides a structural support inside the artery.
A stent is fitted with a balloon catheter and inserted to the narrow artery. The balloon is inflated and stent is also expanded as well. The balloon is deflated and removed and the stent is left in the artery holding the diameter wide permanently.
Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Interventional Procedures (ClevelandClinic)
General principles of the use of intracoronary stents (UptoDate)