1 → 2 (isovolumetric contraction). The cycle begins at the end of diastole at point 1. Ventricular pressure is low because the ventricular muscle is relaxed. On excitation, the ventricle contracts and ventricular pressure increases. The mitral valve closes when left ventricular pressure is greater than left atrial pressure. Because all valves are closed, no blood can be ejected from the ventricle (isovolumetric).
2 → 3 (ventricular ejection). The aortic valve opens at point 2 when pressure in the left ventricle exceeds pressure in the aorta. Blood is ejected into the aorta, and ventricular volume decreases. The volume that is ejected in this phase is the stroke volume. Thus, stroke volume can be measured graphically by the width of the pressure–volume loop. The volume remaining in the left ventricle at point 3 is end-systolic volume.
3 → 4 (isovolumetric relaxation). At point 3, the ventricle relaxes. When ventricular pressure decreases to less than aortic pressure, the aortic valve closes. Because all of the valves are closed again, ventricular volume is constant (isovolumetric) during this phase.
4 → 1 (ventricular filling). Once left ventricular pressure decreases to less than left atrial pressure, the mitral valve opens and filling of the ventricle begins. During this phase, ventricular volume increases to about 140 mL (the end-diastolic volume).
Loops Based off Drugs
Increased Preload/ Intravenous Fluids
Decreased Afterload – ACE-inhibitors, ARB’s
Increased Contractility/Positive Inotropes – Dobutamine, Dopamine